Undoubtedly, the continuous use of pesticides to combat household pests, especially bed bugs, is not indifferent to our health, the health of our children, our four-legged friends, or the natural environment. The use of DDT against bed bugs has proven to be a striking example of environmental harm, but other substances are also not neutral.
The Pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) has been colonizing the European region for almost two hundred years. It is found exclusively in year-round heated buildings throughout the continent. Colonies without access to suitable temperatures above 18°C perish. They are unable to produce replacement workers for those that die of old age. The worker ants have a remarkably short lifespan, with a maximum of 90 days.
There is a clear spatial separation of this species from the natural environment. Colonies that manage to escape only survive briefly and during the warm season. As a result, their interaction with the natural environment is negligible and ecologically insignificant. Furthermore, scientific studies examining the impact of this species on insect populations and other ant species in subtropical and tropical areas, where the ant exists in the wild, have not shown any significant negative effects following its introduction.
The presence of Monomorium pharaonis in Europe for such a long period of time has not demonstrated any negative environmental consequences. Moreover, introducing it into the natural environment is impossible due to the insect’s sensitivity to low temperatures, which completely eliminates such a possibility.
There is no invasive potential in the natural environment for this species in Poland and Europe.
According to Article 12, Article 55, and Article 59(2) of the Law on Alien Species; Article 32 of EU Regulation No. 1143/2014, along with the attachment (List of Invasive Alien Species), the Pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) is not recognized as an invasive alien species on the territory of the European Union.